Ultrasound (ultrasound) has become the leading method for diagnosing various types of pathologies. The excellent combination of its qualities – not invasiveness, informativeness, speed and absolute painlessness allows to obtain the necessary data for establishing the diagnosis and prescription of therapy.
Diagnostics has ample opportunities and is used to assess the condition of almost all soft tissues, vessels and joints. As with many other procedures, the patient must carry out a number of activities for an ultrasound examination of certain organs, due to their characteristics.
Preparation for ultrasound for certain organs or systems is an integral part, and differs depending on which part of the body the study is directed to. A qualitatively produced set of preparatory manipulations is guaranteed to provide reliable results.
What organs need to be prepared for examination?
An ultrasound can carefully examine and identify the pathological abnormalities of almost all parts of the body, but some of them need to be specially prepared. Thus, the abdominal organs (OBP) that are subject to prior preparation for ultrasound include the stomach, pancreas, liver, intestines, gall bladder, spleen, and abdominal aorta.
You will also need to prepare for the study of the retroperitoneal space, where the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters, and always the small pelvis are located when examining the bladder. Breast ultrasound should be done in the first 7-10 days of the menstrual cycle.
For everyone else – the brain, joints, joints, muscles, thymus and thyroid glands, no need to prepare.
Due to the nature of the structure of various organs, their preparation for ultrasound is different, but for some it is no different. For example, most of the OBP has almost the same preparation algorithm, that is, the procedures before the examination of the liver, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, stomach and intestines do not practically differ.
How to prepare for the OBD survey?
To the doctor was able to carefully examine the organs of the abdominal cavity, it is necessary to completely clear the stomach of food debris and intestines from fecal masses, and also take care of reducing the process of gas formation.
Since this can be a significant obstacle to diagnosing – on ultrasound the accumulation of gas, leftover food, feces can look like a neoplasm or other pathological processes.
Before you prepare for the BDU ultrasound, you need to ask the nurse of the diagnostic room in detail about the features of the preparatory process or use the patient reminder.
Preparation for the examination includes two main components – a diet with a specific diet and bowel cleansing. To do this, you must strictly adhere to the rules and follow all instructions.
Diet and recommended diet
The diet before the ultrasound is prescribed 3-4 days before it is held and consists in the complete abandonment of products leading to increased gas formation and slagging of the body. What can not eat before ultrasound?
What foods need to be excluded from your diet when you need to prepare for ultrasound?
- legumes – peas, beans, beans, lentils
- bakery products, pastries, sweets
- raw fruits and vegetables
- fatty meats and fish
- milk products
- juices, strong coffee and tea
- carbonated drinks and water
- alcohol containing drinks.
Products that can be eaten before ultrasound are:
- cereal porridge – buckwheat, barley, oat, from flax seeds
- lean poultry or fish meat, beef, steamed or boiled
- hard-boiled eggs but not more than one per day
- low-fat cheeses.
When preparing, one should eat often, at least 4–5 times a day in 3-4 hours and drink enough liquid – non-carbonated water or weakly brewed tea to 1.5–2 liters per day. For patients who are interested in whether it is possible to eat before the ultrasound, the answer is that the procedure is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach, at the last meal during a late light dinner.
In the event that it is held after lunch, the subject is allowed to have breakfast with food approved by the diet no later than 8-9 o’clock in the morning, and then eat nothing more and not drink before the ultrasound.
The second important condition that must be performed to make an ultrasound scan the first time and to avoid reappointment of the procedure is intestinal cleansing. To go on an ultrasound scan with a well-prepared body, you can clear one of the existing methods – using an enema or taking special pharmaceutical preparations.
For the intestinal cleansing with the enema method, the patient will need a combined hot-water bottle or an Esmarch cup and an assistant – a close person who will assist in carrying out the water procedure. For high-quality washing of the intestines, it is necessary to start cleansing in the evening and put 2 enemas at 20.00 and 22.00.
The next morning, at 6–8 hours, 1–2 hours before the test, you need to do 2 or more enemas until the water is clear.
Cleaning with pharmaceuticals such as Fortrans, Flit, and others, greatly simplifies the process and does not require the participation of a second person. The drug is diluted with water – in most cases it is powder, packaged in separate bags.
Its content is diluted with 1 liter of water at the rate of 1 sachet per 20–25 kg of weight and is drunk per hour, that is, if you need to take 3 sachets, then it will take 3 hours.
What medications facilitate the preparation process?
For people who suffer from increased flatulence or constipation, doctors recommend taking medications that will relieve these pathological manifestations and greatly facilitate the preparatory process. So with excessive gas formation or to prevent it, preparations containing enzymes such as Festal or Mezim are prescribed, enterosorbents – White coal, Smekta or Espumizan (1 tablet three times a day) for meteorism.
For regular stools, laxatives such as Senade, Bisacodil, Guttalax must be taken every day so that the intestines can cleanse themselves of fecal matter, and less time and effort have to be spent on special cleaning.
Features of preparation for the study of the retroperitoneal space
The retroperitoneal part also has its own characteristics when preparing for an ultrasound scan, and the patient, when he goes on the procedure, must always listen to the recommendations of the specialist and carefully carry them out.
Kidneys and adrenal glands
If a patient has a normal weight, then the kidneys and adrenal glands are easy to examine without prior preparation, but for obesity or increased meteorism, the patient will have to perform all the steps that are recommended for ultrasound examinations. Otherwise, the diagnostician will not be able to examine the organs that are appropriate for the diagnosis.
Ultrasound of the bladder, as well as complex, in combination with the examination of the kidneys, is carried out with a full bladder. Therefore, doctors recommend drinking water before ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder for 45–60 before the procedure – at least 0.8–1 liter.
Inaccuracy in relation to water intake is caused by the characteristics of each organism, and they can only be detected by experience.
If it is difficult for the patient to drink the required amount of liquid in a short time, you can start taking it 1.5 hours before the session and drink it in small portions. The patient to the beginning of the procedure should feel strongly expressed urge to urinate.
The algorithm for preparing for ultrasound of the bladder with the evaluation of the volume of residual urine is constructed in the same way.
Small pelvis in women
Female pelvic organs are examined in two ways:
- Transabdominal (through the abdominal wall). It is performed with a full bladder, so you should not urinate for 2-4 hours before the procedure and drink 1 liter of non-carbonated water an hour before. The night before you need to clean the intestines with an enema.
- Transvaginal (insertion into the vagina of the sensor). This method allows you to determine early pregnancy and preparation does not require, as a full bladder will only interfere with the procedure.
Diagnosing this male organ also occurs in two ways:
- Transabdominal, which requires a filled bladder, and therefore the patient cannot urinate for several hours before the session begins, and you need to drink one liter of water without gas in an hour.
- Transrectal (insertion of the sensor into the rectum). The method does not require a full bladder, but the night before you should do a bowel cleansing with an enema.
Recommendations before diagnosing children
Many mothers, after receiving directions for ultrasound and learning about the upcoming diet, worrying about the child, begin to ask the doctor, is it possible to eat before the ultrasound and how many hours should pass before the test starts from feeding? Such questions are answered depending on the age of the child.
If the baby is a baby, then the mother skips one feeding, so that at least 3 hours have passed, and an hour should not be given to the baby.
Children from 1 to 3 years are a little easier to make an interval between receptions for more than 4 hours, which is enough to digest the food eaten, and also not to give the child to drink at least an hour. Older ones, from 3 to 14 years old, who are able to understand why they should stop eating for a while, children are recommended to fast for 6–8 hours and an hour to refrain from taking fluids, but, as a rule, they normally tolerate such demands.
Careful preparation – the result of the first time!
The most important thing to know and do not forget that the preparatory process for ultrasound diagnostics is just as important as the high-quality equipment and the professionalism of the doctor. And with a successful combination of all these parameters, complete information with the smallest characteristics of the diagnosed organs will be given by the attending physician in a few minutes, who will establish the pathology in the shortest possible time and prescribe the necessary therapy.