With the help of ultrasound (ultrasound) is available to identify many pathologies, and often in most cases, doctors prescribe it. Having received a referral to an abdominal ultrasound scan, the patient can be completely sure that in a short time he will be given the correct diagnosis and will be prescribed the appropriate treatment.
But at the same time, the patient will need active participation in the form of preparation for the procedure, on which the quality of the results of the study will depend. Preparation for abdominal ultrasound and kidney ultrasound includes a list of specific activities that are not particularly difficult for the patient to perform.
What authorities need training?
Diagnosis using ultrasound allows a specialist to thoroughly examine all OBPs (abdominal organs) – the liver, pancreas, spleen, gall bladder, blood and urinary systems. It is also possible to study the condition of the kidneys, adrenal glands and retroperitoneal space.
A successful ultrasound examination is available to identify many pathologies or abnormalities in the development of the above organs.
- assess the state and structure of the liver, kidneys
- inspect the gallbladder and its ducts
- examine the pancreas
- identify inflammatory processes and ascites (accumulation of fluid in the organs).
The procedure makes it possible to determine the presence of stones (stones) in the ureters, bladder, kidneys, gall bladder and its ducts, scrupulously inspect the aorta – the largest vessel of the abdominal space. For children, ultrasound is one of the quickest and most painless ways to quickly identify appendicitis, which allows you to take the necessary measures as soon as possible.
Also in the process of diagnosis is quite easy to determine the integrity of organs due to injury or other damage.
All the listed research capabilities provide a definition of the causes of unexplained pain in the abdominal region and various disruption of the functioning of its organs and systems. In some cases, ultrasound is used to control after taking a biopsy or to prepare for surgical operations.
Important components of preparation for the OBP survey
In order to properly prepare for the OBD ultrasound, and the process did not prevent anything, the patient should strictly adhere to all the recommendations that he receives in the diagnostic room. These include:
- observance of a special diet and a certain diet
- the right time for taking into account some surveys
- prohibition of bad habits – taking alcohol, smoking
- use of medications only for the purpose of the specialist
- consideration of the features of the organs and their respective preparation.
The basic rules of the diet when preparing
The most important rule of the diet is to distinguish between what products you can eat and what can not. Diet is a complete rejection of food, leading to the occurrence of flatulence in the stomach and intestines, which will prevent a qualitative inspection of the organs.
It must be started at least 3 days before the planned study.
Permitted products include:
- boiled or steam lean meat – quail, beef, chicken, veal
- lean fish – boiled, baked, steam
- hard-boiled eggs – no more than 1 per day
- cereals – barley, oatmeal, buckwheat
- low-fat cheeses.
Eating is necessary often – every 3-4 hours, but in small portions. It is not recommended to drink food, you can drink unsweetened and weak tea, non-carbonated water one hour before meals or one hour after it.
The volume of fluid consumed per day should not be less than 1.5 liters. Products that should be completely excluded:
- legumes – peas, lentils, beans, beans
- carbonated and caffeinated beverages
- sweets, baked goods, black bread
- dairy products (including cottage cheese)
- fatty meats, fish and cheeses
- raw vegetables and fruits.
Such a diet should be followed before dinner on the eve of the procedure – no later than 18–19 hours, and if the study is scheduled the next morning, then you should not eat or drink. And if the examination is scheduled for the afternoon, then at 8–9 in the morning you can eat a light breakfast, so that in any case the diagnosis is carried out on an empty stomach.
Diet for children
Preparation for ultrasound of the abdomen and kidneys in adults and children is very similar, but it still has some differences. Infants should skip one feeding so that at least 3 hours pass before the procedure and at least one hour should not be watered.
Older children – from 1 to 3 years old are taking a break between meals, since it is already easier for them not to eat for 4 hours, and this is enough for digesting food debris.
Fluid will also have to abstain an hour before the diagnosis. From 3 to 14 years old, when children already understand what they need and can tolerate for 6–8 hours without food and an hour without drinking, the procedure is carried out with such an interval of feedings.
Children over 3 years old already understand that research needs to be done, and they may refrain from eating and drinking the necessary time.
Patients of any age can be prepared for the study by drugs that reduce gas formation – Espumizan and its analogues: Bobotik, Kuplaton, Infakol. They are prescribed for 3 days before the study, taking into account the age of the subject.
If these drugs do not give the desired effect or are not well tolerated (babies do not get colic and the adult has a feeling of bloating), then it is recommended to take adsorbents. This is the well-known “Smekta”, “White coal”.
Earlier, Activated Carbon was used, but it affects less effectively and now with the creation of new drugs, it has been successfully replaced by more effective drugs. They do not need to be taken within 3 days – 2 receptions are enough, on the evening before the procedure and in the morning 3 hours before it starts.
Adult patients who do not have pancreatitis in history can drink Mezim or Festal to improve their digestive processes 3 times a day, taking a pill with food.
The intestinal lumen filled with feces may become a significant obstacle to the examination, so the preparation for the procedure should be thorough. You can use the old method using the Esmarch cup and 1-1.5 liters of water at room temperature.
It is necessary to make an enema in the evening no later than 16-18 hours.
After cleaning, you should drink adsorbents or drugs against flatulence – 1-2 doses. An excellent alternative to the enema method has become a new and effective drugs that can perfectly clean the colon in a few hours.
One of the most commonly used is Fortrans.
It is diluted with 1 liter of water at the rate of 1 sachet per 25 kg of a person’s weight and is drunk for 1 hour, that is, if the body weight is 75 kg, then 3 liters of the solution is taken for 3 hours. This cleaning should be carried out on the eve of the examination in the afternoon – from 16 to 19 hours.
Drugs created on the basis of lactulose – “Dufalak”, “Normaze”, “Prelaksan” should not be taken, as they can cause bloating, which will interfere with obtaining high-quality results.
What should be considered when preparing for SSB?
Before you begin to prepare for the BDI ultrasound, you should consult with your doctor or nurse about all the possible nuances, including:
- mandatory cessation of smoking 2–3 hours before the procedure
- ban on sucking candies and chewing gum
- consultation of a sonologist for people with diabetes.
Diabetics, especially those taking insulin, cannot starve for a long time, so the procedure should be carried out in the morning. It is necessary to make an interval of at least 2 days, if prior to the ultrasound the patient was examined with the use of barium – X-rays or irrigoscopy.
All the drugs taken by the patient on a regular basis should be reported to the doctor in advance so that he adjusted their reception during the preparation for the examination, since, for example, cardiac medications cannot be canceled, but antispasmodics will have to be abandoned.
To prepare for an ultrasound of the kidneys, you need to take at least 1.5 liters of non-carbonated water or unsweetened tea, and then refrain from going to the toilet. And the rest of the preparation for ultrasound of the kidney does not differ from other organs of the retroperitoneal space.
What can affect the results of the survey?
There are enough reasons that adversely affect the ultrasound examination, and some can be avoided by the patient if they react responsibly to the examination. These include:
- bowel spasm due to recent smoking or endoscopy
- increased flatulence with poor preparation
- remnants of contrast in the intestinal lumen
- excessive weight of the patient, preventing the penetration of ultrasound
- large wound surface that does not allow to put the sensor
- increased patient activity during the examination.
The patient cannot influence some factors, but he can easily take care of excluding the others. Therefore, it is better to immediately tune in and prepare well for ultrasound, so as not to waste time and money on re-diagnosis.