Ultrasound of the newborn immediately after its birth, is made in the presence of pronounced pathologies or abnormalities identified during fetal development. In all other (uncomplicated) cases, the first ultrasound examination of the infant’s body is carried out at the age of one month.
The main goal of ultrasound is to establish the possible abnormalities of the internal organs and TBS (hip joints).
The need for diagnosis and safety of the baby
Ultrasound diagnosis, by right, is considered the most harmless procedure. The image on the monitor is visualized by the transformation of the echo signal reflected from the internal organs. Ultrasonic waves are not foreign to the body and are not dangerous.
The survey has virtually no contraindications and restrictions on the multiplicity of the conduct.
The prerogative side of the method is the ability to identify pathologies at the initial stage of their development, which can guarantee a favorable prognosis. Early diagnosis of abnormalities in the development of the child increases the chance of their correction several times.
Many of the violations found can be eliminated through conservative therapy without exposing the baby to surgery.
Before the procedure can not be nervous and unnerving child. The calm state of the baby and the mother will help the doctor to carry out an ultrasound scan with the highest quality and in an accelerated mode. Examination of the infant during sleep is allowed.
You should take a diaper, pacifier, favorite toy. Long-term training ultrasound screening of newborns does not provide.
Before ultrasound of the urinary system for half an hour the child should be fed with some water, so that during the procedure the bladder was in a filled state. The abdominal cavity is examined three hours after feeding.
When breastfeeding, mommy should first give up fresh vegetables and fruits to avoid gas formation in the infant.
The main types of diagnostics
Ultrasound of a newborn in 1 month must include:
- abdominal organs
- hip joints.
Ultrasound head diagnostics
Neurosonography or ultrasound diagnostics of the brain is performed during the open “fontanelle” (soft pulsating area, often located near the crown). The doctor-uzist applies the gel, conducting ultrasound, on the sensor and the area of ”spring”.
The monitor broadcasts an online image of all the structures of the brain. The doctor assesses the condition of the following parameters:
|Surveyed area||Regulatory Indicators|
|Brain hemispheres||Identical, symmetrical|
|The structure of the halves of the brain||Homogeneous (homogeneous)|
|Interhemispheric space||Not more than 0.3 cm, without signs of fluid|
|The presence of injuries, hematomas||Missing|
|Ventricular cavity of the brain||Not increased|
|Vascular plexus of the ventricles||Good conductivity (echo)|
|The size of the ventricles||Anterior horns – 0.4 cm. Occipital horns -1.5 cm, body – 0.4 cm, ventricles third and fourth – 0.4 cm.|
|The size of the intermediate cavity (subarachnoid space) between the brain and spinal cord||Up to 0.3 cm|
|Tank volume||Up to 10 mm³|
|Neoplasm and compaction||Absent|
|Brain sheath||Without changes|
The most common diagnoses for babies that ultrasound detects are:
- hydrocephalus (hydrocephalus)
- presence in the choroid plexus or arachnoid membrane of the brain cyst
- cerebral hemorrhage
- parts of the brain that are poorly supplied with blood (ischemic).
Decoding of indicators is carried out by a neurologist. Children with the detected pathology should undergo neurosonography monthly to monitor therapy.
Diagnosis of the hip joints
Ultrasound examination of TBS are subject to children aged from one month to two. The aim of the study is to detect underdevelopment of the joints (dysplasia).
The main indicator is the size of the angle of the femoral head relative to the pelvic and the development of cartilage space. The measurement results are compared with the norms of the classification table of the Graph.
There are three degrees of dysplasia: delayed joint formation – first degree, change in structure (subluxation) – second degree, pathological joint formation – third degree. What orthopedic treatment will be most effective, according to the degree of dysplasia, is determined by the doctor.
Ultrasound control is appointed at four months of age.
Examination of the abdominal organs
In order to establish possible congenital abnormalities in the development of internal organs, an abdominal ultrasound scan is performed on a baby. The doctor determines the parameters of the organs and compares them with the norms. Evaluation subject:
- Liver. It is determined: size, presence / absence of neoplasms, echo (conductivity), contours.
- Spleen. The main indicator is the size of the body (the average length is 4 cm).
- Pancreas. Active and latent inflammatory processes are identified.
- Gallbladder and ducts. The general condition of the organs, size. The length of the bubble should be from 1.2 to 2.5 cm.
Identified deviations are recorded in the protocol ultrasound. The treatment is prescribed by a pediatrician.
What additional diagnostic procedures are needed in the first month of life, the doctor determines.
Ultrasound of the heart or echocardiography necessarily make up to a year. Indications for early research are:
- extraneous sounds (creak, whistle) when listening to a medical phonendoscope (noise)
- bluish coloration of the nasolabial part of the face (cyanosis)
- cold hands and feet at normal air temperature
- difficulty breathing without cold symptoms
- pulsating veins in the neck.
The examination can also be scheduled if one of the parents suffers from a heart defect or if serious abnormalities are found even in the prenatal period of the baby’s development.
Ultrasound diagnosis of kidneys
Ultrasound of the kidneys is performed on a newborn at birth trauma before discharge from the maternity hospital. Other indications for the procedure in the first month of life are: aggravated heredity (polycystic and other kidney diseases in the parents), edema, abnormalities of laboratory tests of urine, difficulty emptying the bladder.
Surgery is indicated when hydronephrosis is detected (expansion of the renal pelvis, due to difficult outflow of urine).
An ultrasound scan of the cervical spine is most often prescribed for suspected or injured babies during childbirth. Ultrasound examination of infants is an important procedure that cannot be ignored. Abnormalities and pathologies found at an early age will avoid complications in the future.
The choice of where to make the diagnosis, in the district clinic or paid diagnostic center, remains with the parents.