Ultrasound of the brain structures refers to a modern, objective research method, which allows to determine the presence of pathological foci located inside the skull. Also, the diagnosis is called neurosonography.
This procedure is completely safe; it can even be used in newborns and premature babies. This article will tell you in detail in which cases an ultrasound of the brain is prescribed for children, how the examination is carried out, and what disease it reveals.
Characteristics of the study
Ultrasonography of cerebral vessels is performed through the use of ultrasound that does not pose a danger to the body. This procedure is performed for all age categories.
She can even examine pregnant women and premature babies. Waves with high frequency, pass through the fabric, and then reflected.
Next, the reflected waves are captured using an ultrasonic sensor and displayed on the equipment screen.
Doppler ultrasound has the following advantages:
- complete security. Examination is not dangerous, because ultrasonic waves do not harm the body
- the possibility of frequent carrying out allows you to control the course of treatment of the disease and use the diagnosis as prevention
- painless, non-invasive
- probability of diagnosing soft tissue of the brain
- probability of examining the same area in different projections
To identify brain disorders, there are several types of procedures:
- Echoencephalography. This type is used for both adult and children’s categories.
- Neurosonography is used exclusively as a child study.
- Duplex scanning, allowing to evaluate the work of the blood vessels not only of the head, but also of the neck.
Ultrasound of the head of a child of the first year of life is produced using neurosonography. This procedure is carried out through a spring, making a two-dimensional picture of brain structures.
If a child has normal development, then the spring grows during the first year, sometimes this process takes place over a period of 1.5 years. This procedure is completely painless. Usually it makes no more than 25.
Indications for study
Ultrasound of the brain can be performed from the first days of life, still in the hospital. More information about ultrasound of the brain in newborns is described in this article. Usually it is carried out according to the following indications:
- transferred intrauterine infection
- difficult birth period
- birth prematurely
- increased intracranial pressure
- low birth weight
- abnormal development of arteries
- birth injuries
- intracranial hemorrhage
- suspected diabetes.
Today in pediatrics, brain ultrasound is performed as a prophylaxis for all children under one year old. It allows you to timely determine the presence of hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, vascular pathology. When the child reaches the year, an ultrasound head examination is prescribed if:
- impaired coordination
- disturbed attention
- memory problems thinking
- disturbances of the emotional sphere. When a baby is angry, weeping
- disturbed sleep. And it can manifest as insomnia, and increased sleepiness
- goose bumps
These signs often speak of impaired circulation. Often these symptoms occur at the beginning of the child’s learning activities or during puberty.
What identifies the disease
Ultrasound during the examination reveals impaired blood flow, vascular pathology, intracranial hemorrhage and various complications of these diseases. These anomalies are often the cause of death and lead to a serious complication of the neuropsychiatric status of the baby.
The study is able to identify hypoxia and ischemia of the brain structures in children, inflammatory processes of the brain, which can occur not only during intrauterine gestation, but also in subsequent stages of child development.
Frequent decoding of results
Most often, doctors are faced with the following decoding of results:
- expansion of the cerebral ventricles is set in the event that the depth of the examined structure is higher than the norm. This parameter should not be more than 2 mm. These results suggest the presence of hydrocephalus, which is popularly known as dropsy of the brain. Usually, the disease occurs as a result of intrauterine infections. Intracerebral fluid causes increased pressure. Because of what the child is very tired, he has a headache, he is lagging behind in development
- enlarged subarachnoid space is characterized by a parameter greater than 3 mm. Usually, this pathology is manifested by frequent regurgitation, poor appetite. May be a sign of meningitis. If the increase was found only on ultrasound and has no symptoms, then it can be a sign of hydrocephalus.
- Vascular cysts are a plexus of vessels that line the ventricle of the brain. Most often, the pathology resolves itself
- arachnoid cysts appear to be a cavity filled with fluid. If the identified lesion is larger than 3 mm, then it tends to squeeze the brain. What leads to the development of epileptic seizures
- hemorrhage or traces of it
- a focus of ischemia, which suggests that some part of the brain performs its functions poorly. This often causes serious deviations in the development of the baby.
Special preparatory activities for ultrasound head is not required. The child will feel most comfortable in the fed state.
Nevertheless, it is desirable that at least half an hour pass between the study and the procedure. This condition is necessary to exclude regurgitation.
With a need to take a warm diaper. Reliable results can be obtained with the right psychological mood.
An older child should be interviewed on the eve of the examination.
He needs to be told that the procedure will be painless. Also, the baby must be warned that the doctor asks him to change the location of the neck, roll over.
If a small patient uses drugs aimed at improving blood circulation, then on the day of the study it is better to refuse them.
Carrying out the procedure
The study of the brain is carried out in the following steps. The child should be laid on the couch so that he behaves as calmly as possible during the examination. To distract him, you can take your favorite toy with you.
The only condition for obtaining the correct result is to ensure complete immobility of the head. Therefore, parents need to fix the head of the child as tightly as possible.
On the head of the baby specialist will apply the gel for the study of children. It differs from that used for screening adults. Children’s gel is hypoallergic.
It improves the signal by removing the excess air layer between the sensor and the skin. Next, the doctor drives the sensor, examining the parameters of brain structures, as well as the tissues surrounding them.
Usually, ultrasound diagnosis of the brain is carried out by examining the anterior type of spring.
In addition, there are secondary windows for visualization, which include the coronoid seam, anterolateral spring, and a reversing fontanel. Thanks to prophylactic ultrasound examination of the brain, it became possible to determine the presence of various abnormalities in children in a timely manner.
This makes it possible to start early treatment and improve the prognosis of the disease.