Ultrasound of the brain in infants is considered one of the most effective ways to diagnose brain structures, blood flow and surrounding tissues. This method is painless, does not require preparatory activities.
He assesses the structure of the brain, its ventricles, and analyzes of cerebral hemodynamics.
Characteristics of ultrasound
Ultrasound of the head of a newborn is carried out by means of neurosonography. With its help, newborn infants and babies up to one year old are diagnosed.
In rare cases, if it does not have a spring, it takes up to one and a half years inclusive. With the help of high-frequency waves, an image is formed on the screen.
Ultrasound of the brain of newborns is painless and safe.
This quality allows you to conduct research as needed to monitor treatment. In addition, this procedure does not require the introduction of anesthesia.
The baby may sleep or even cry. This will not affect the result.
Ultrasound examinations of the brain study the structure of tissues, blood vessels, the degree of blood supply to the organ. During diagnosis, the doctor analyzes the processes of the brain, their dynamics.
Indications for study
Many young parents are interested in the question of why an ultrasound examination of a newly born baby. There are many cases when ultrasound of the brain is shown in newborns. First of all, this diagnosis is prescribed for complicated pregnancy, difficult childbirth, any suspicion of congenital anomalies.
Today, it is common practice to undergo preventive ultrasound in the hospital if the baby is 1 month old.
Ultrasound examination is carried out in the following situations:
- in the form of a routine inspection
- if birth happened before 36 weeks
- with low birth weight, less than 2.8 kg
- if the Apgar scale shows 7/7, as well as below this level
- in the presence of diseases of the central nervous system or suspicion of them
- in case of defects that manifest themselves externally, for example, in violation of the shape and size of the ears, more fingers
- with swollen fontanelle
- in the presence of a hernia of brain structures
- in the event that the newborn during childbirth did not shout
- if the baby has been lying in intensive care for a long time
- due to birth injury
- with convulsions
- if there is a suspicion of infection
- with rhesus conflict mommy and child.
What is learned during the examination
Ultrasound brain babies allows us to evaluate:
- brain ventricles. During visualization of their size, contours, structures, the doctor diagnoses the presence or absence of hemorrhages, intraventricular cysts, hydrocephalus, as well as pathologies that later develop rickets. Their timely elimination will help to avoid problems of not only physical, but also mental nature.
- condition of large vessels of the head of children. During the procedure, aneurysm can be detected. It is represented by the expansion of the vascular walls. As a result, the blood hardly penetrates into the brain. What can cause various hemorrhages
- presence of hemorrhage due to prematurity. This problem needs careful observation. Since it can lead to death
- cysts that have fluid in their cavity. This manifestation requires constant monitoring by a neurologist, since a child with this pathology is prone to epilepsy. This type of cysts does not resolve; they tend only to grow.
- ischemia As a result, the child suffers a lack of oxygen, leading to the death of nerve cells
- infectious processes that cause meningitis. If the disease is detected in a timely manner, then complete recovery is possible.
- tumor processes are rarely diagnosed.
Deciphering the result
Decoding ultrasound brain of the newborn should be carried out exclusively by a doctor. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account that the results are significantly different from the time when the baby was born, whether it is full-term or not. Nevertheless, there is a rule that says that the baby is healthy.
The normal parameters of NSG include the symmetry of the location of the brain structures, the symmetry of the stem structure, the clarity of the convolutions, their good visibility, the uniformity of the structure of the ventricles.
This also includes good echogenicity of the subcortical nuclei, hyperechogenicity of the choroid plexus, the size of the anterior horn is not more than 2 mm., The lateral ventricle must have a depth of 4 mm., The length between the hemispheres must not be more than 2 mm, the size of the third ventricle should vary from 2 to 4 mm., a large tank should be within 3-6 mm. With the passage of time in infants, a change in normal values occurs.
Pathologies detected by ultrasound
The following pathologies are most often detected by brain ultrasound:
- enlarged ventricular cavity indicates the presence of rickets, hydrocephalus. In case of hydrocephalus in a baby, there is an abnormally large head, the fontanel swelling
- expansion of the lateral ventricles results from a large amount of fluid. Most commonly, pathology is diagnosed in premature babies.
- cyst septum, represented by a cavity with fluid. Usually it disappears after a while. If the pathology is found in a newborn, then this condition does not require treatment. If the disease occurs after an injury, then it is necessary to begin the fastest therapy.
How is the diagnosis
Head ultrasound done through the fontanelles. If it becomes necessary to study the structure of the posterior cranial cavity, the doctor drives the sensor through the occipital part.
It is advisable to come to the procedure with a sleeping and fed baby. This will greatly facilitate the study. The baby is placed on a couch, then a gel is applied to the sensor and driven through the area of a large spring, in the temporal zone.
As the position of the sensor is adjusted by the doctor, the structures are examined.
Usually the procedure does not last more than 10-15. During its holding children do not feel any pain and discomfort. If during the procedure a specialist detects serious abnormalities, then a neurologist may prescribe a CT scan or an MRI to clarify.
Ultrasound examination of the head of infants is considered a painless way, giving accurate information and, if necessary, allowing you to start timely treatment.